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Comparison of aromatic and tertiary amine N-oxides of acridine DNA intercalators as bioreductive drugs. Cytotoxicity, DNA binding, cellular uptake, and metabolism.
|Title||Comparison of aromatic and tertiary amine N-oxides of acridine DNA intercalators as bioreductive drugs. Cytotoxicity, DNA binding, cellular uptake, and metabolism.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2000|
|Authors||Siim BG, Hicks KO, Pullen SM, van Zijl PL, Denny WA, Wilson WR|
|Date Published||2000 Oct 1|
Some N-oxide derivatives of DNA intercalators are bioreductive prodrugs that are selectively toxic under hypoxic conditions. The hypoxic selectivity is considered to result from an increase in DNA binding affinity when the N-oxide moiety is reduced. This study investigated whether differences in DNA binding affinity between N-oxides and their corresponding amines, measured by equilibrium dialysis, can account for the hypoxic cytotoxicity ratios (HCR) of tertiary amine N-oxide (-tO) and aromatic N-oxide (-aO) derivatives of the 1-nitroacridine nitracrine (NC) and its non-nitro analogue 9-[3-(N,N-dimethylamino)propylamino]acridine (DAPA). Cytotoxicity was measured in aerobic and hypoxic suspensions of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) AA8 cells by clonogenic assay. HCR were much greater for NC-tO (820-fold) than for NC (5-fold) or NC-aO (4-fold), whereas DAPA and its N-oxides lacked hypoxic selectivity (1-fold). DNA binding measurements demonstrated that binding affinity is lowered more by aromatic than tertiary amine (side-chain) N-oxides, an observation that does not correlate with HCR. Compounds were accumulated in cells to high concentrations (C(i)/C(e) approximately 10-200), with the exception of the tertiary amine N-oxides, for which the ratio of intracellular to extracellular drug was less than unity. For NC-tO this probably resulted from low pK(a) values for both the acridine chromophore and the side-chain, whereas DAPA-tO may be too hydrophilic for efficient membrane permeation. Bioreductive drug metabolism, assessed by HPLC, was faster for the NC than the DAPA N-oxides. The high HCR of NC-tO relative to NC-aO is ascribed to the rapid and selective reduction of its N-oxide moiety, followed by activation of the NC intermediate by O(2)-sensitive reduction of its 1-nitro group to the corresponding 1-amine. The metabolism studies suggest that unmasking of DNA binding affinity by reductive removal of the N-oxide moiety, although not the only determinant, is important and needs to occur before nitroreduction for optimal effect.
|Alternate Journal||Biochem. Pharmacol.|