Neuropsychological profile of executive function in girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

TitleNeuropsychological profile of executive function in girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2010
AuthorsO'Brien JW, Dowell LR, Mostofsky SH, Denckla MB, Mahone ME
JournalArchives of clinical neuropsychology : the official journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Volume25
Issue7
Pagination656-70
Date Published2010 Nov
Abstract

The majority of research on neurobehavioral functioning among children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. Although functional impairment is well established, available research has yet to specify a neuropsychological profile distinct to girls with ADHD. The purpose of this study was to examine performance within four components of executive function (EF) in contemporaneously recruited samples of girls and boys with ADHD. Fifty-six children with ADHD (26 girls) and 90 controls (42 girls), ages 8-13, were administered neuropsychological tests emphasizing response inhibition, response preparation, working memory, and planning/shifting. There were no significant differences in age or SES between boys or girls with ADHD or their sex-matched controls; ADHD subtype distribution did not differ by sex. Compared with controls, children with ADHD showed significant deficits on all four EF components. Girls and boys with ADHD showed similar patterns of deficit on tasks involving response preparation and working memory; however, they manifested different patterns of executive dysfunction on tasks related to response inhibition and planning. Girls with ADHD showed elevated motor overflow, while boys with ADHD showed greater impairment during conscious, effortful response inhibition. Girls, but not boys with ADHD, showed impairment in planning. There were no differences between ADHD subtypes on any EF component. These findings highlight the importance of studying boys and girls separately (as well as together) when considering manifestations of executive dysfunction in ADHD.

DOI10.1097/BRS.0b013e3181e03881
Alternate JournalArch Clin Neuropsychol