The role of lithium carbonate and lithium citrate in regulating urinary citrate level and preventing nephrolithiasis.

TitleThe role of lithium carbonate and lithium citrate in regulating urinary citrate level and preventing nephrolithiasis.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2009
AuthorsZhang X, Aggarwal P, Li X, Oakman C, Wang Z, Rodriguez R
JournalInternational journal of biomedical science : IJBS
Volume5
Issue3
Pagination215-22
Date Published2009 Sep
Abstract

Urinary Citrate is an inhibitor of Calcium oxalate stone formation. It is reabsorbed in the proximal kidney through sodium dicarboxylate co-transporters (NaDC-1, NaDC-3) present in the renal tubular epithelium. Lithium (Li) is a known potent inhibitor of these transporters. We investigated the effect of lithium carbonate (LiC) and lithium citrate (LiCit) in regulating urinary citrate levels and preventing nephrolithiasis (NL) in the rat model. Experimental approach: We took 220 Wistar rats and induced nephrolithiasis in 130 of them by administering high doses of 5% ammonium oxalate (AmOx) for seven days and labeled them as Group B. Rest were labeled as Group A. Each group was then divided into 3 subgroups. First sub-group acted as control while other two were treated with either lithium carbonate (LiC) or lithium citrate (LiCit) for 21 days. Ten rats from each of the six sub-groups were randomly selected for sacrifice on 3(rd), 7(th) and 14(th) day and additional 10(th) and 21(st) day from Li treated groups. Blood and urine samples were collected and analyzed on these days. The kidneys of the sacrificed rats were dissected and studied under light microscopy for crystal deposition (left kidney) and histological changes (right kidney).

DOI10.1111/iju.12192
Alternate JournalInt J Biomed Sci