Self-injury in autism as an alternate sign of catatonia: implications for electroconvulsive therapy.

TitleSelf-injury in autism as an alternate sign of catatonia: implications for electroconvulsive therapy.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2010
AuthorsWachtel LE, Dhossche DM
JournalMedical hypotheses
Volume75
Issue1
Pagination111-4
Date Published2010 Jul
Abstract

Multiple reports show the efficacious usage of ECT for catatonia in individuals with autism. There are also a few reports showing that ECT improves self-injury in people with and without autism. In this hypothesis, self-injury in autism and other developmental disorders may be an alternate sign of catatonia, and as such an indication for electroconvulsive therapy. The issue is important because self-injury occurs at an increased rate in autistic and intellectually disabled individuals, but is poorly understood and often difficult to treat with psychological and pharmacological means. Self-injury may be considered a type of stereotypy, a classic symptom of catatonia that is exquisitely responsive to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Historical and modern reports further support the association of self-injury, tics and catatonia. Central gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) dysfunction may provide an important explanatory link between autism, catatonia and self-injury. Therefore, people with autism and other developmental disorders who develop severe self-injury (with or without concomitant tics) should be assessed for catatonia, and ECT should be considered as a treatment option. Further studies of the utility of ECT as an accepted treatment for catatonia are warranted in the study of self-injury in autism.

DOI10.1089/scd.2009.0326
Alternate JournalMed. Hypotheses