HUGO MOSER RESEARCH INSTITUTE OVERVIEW

Kennedy Krieger’s scientists and researchers are leaders in the worldwide effort to prevent and treat disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and musculoskeletal system.  Our investigators continue to break new ground with innovative magnetic resonance imaging technology, investigate critical areas, such as the role of genetics in developmental disorders, and develop new treatment models and therapies. Kennedy Krieger is committed to sharing our knowledge that can be adapted and used by other healthcare organizations to benefit patients across the country and around the world.

Professional Training Overview

Kennedy Krieger dedicates substantial resources to increasing the number of qualified specialists in the fields of neurological and developmental disabilities. We also take seriously our responsibility not only to improve care through research, but to share that knowledge with others. That is why more than 400 individuals come here to train in a wide variety of disciplines each year. The goals of the Institute’s clinical training programs are twofold: 1) to train leaders in the field of neurodevelopmental disabilities and 2) to help ensure that there is a sufficient number of qualified professionals to meet the needs of children with special health care needs and their families. By training future generations of researchers and professionals – from undergraduate students to current staff – we are ensuring that children everywhere can receive the best possible care.

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A National Research Resource Center for Functional Brain Imaging Technology

The only children's hospital designated as a NIH National Research Resource for functional brain imaging, Kennedy Krieger is breaking new ground with innovative fMRI technology.
Understanding Behaviors Through Observational Research

Discovering the environmental and biological basis of behavior is crucial to understanding and improving treatment outcomes for a wide variety of developmental disorders.
Motion Analysis Research and Laboratory

Using 3D modeling and other innovative technologies, our researchers are studying new methods to improve walking patterns in those with brain injuries.
IAN Research: Advancing Research, Empowering Advocates, Interpreting Findings

The Interactive Autism Network (IAN) is the nation's largest online autism research effort. IAN Research collects data from families online and matches them to studies nationwide.

HUGO MOSER RESEARCH INSTITUTE OVERVIEW

Kennedy Krieger’s scientists and researchers are leaders in the worldwide effort to prevent and treat disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and musculoskeletal system.  Our investigators continue to break new ground with innovative magnetic resonance imaging technology, investigate critical areas, such as the role of genetics in developmental disorders, and develop new treatment models and therapies. Kennedy Krieger is committed to sharing our knowledge that can be adapted and used by other healthcare organizations to benefit patients across the country and around the world.

Participate in Research

Over the years, Kennedy Krieger’s scientists and researchers have made crucial medical discoveries that have led to innovative treatments and improved patient care for individuals with disorders of the brain, spinal cord and musculoskeletal system. Learn more about current research studies you can participate in by visiting our recruiting research studies page. Learn more.

Current Research Projects

Pediatric Psychology and Neuropsychology Predoctoral Internship Training - Abstract
Principal Investigator: Reesman, Jennifer
Hearing loss or deafness affects more than 48.1 million individuals in the United States, with nearly 1 in 5 Americans displaying a hearing loss as defined by the World Health Organization criteria (...
Delay Discounting in Children with ADHD: Neuroimaging and Behavioral Correlates
Principal Investigator: Rosch, Keri Shiels
My long-term career goal is to establish a research program to improve treatments for ADHD, with an emphasis on doing so through improved understanding of alterations in cognition and motivation in...
ArmAware: A Novel Device to Treat Motor Disorders
Principal Investigator: Salorio, Cynthia
The goal of this project is to develop a prototype of a novel device to treat hemiplegia. The award covers development costs of the initial prototypes.
Characterization of Biochemical Abnormalities Underlying Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Cardiomyopathy in Barth Syndrome and Adenine Nucleotide Translocase 1 (ANT-1) Deficiency
Principal Investigator: Sandlers, Yana
The treatment of many inborn errors of metabolism is centered on recognizing and correcting, or compensating for metabolic aberrations. The limited understanding of the complexity of the biochemical...
Kennedy Krieger Institute's Linked Clinical Research Center in Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Principal Investigator: Shapiro, Jay
As a participant of the Linked Clinical Research Centers (LCRC), the Osteogenesis Imperfecta (or) Program at the Kennedy Krieger Institute (KKI) brings an established record of multidiscliplinary...
The IBMD-OI Study: A Study to Assess the Effectiveness of Teriparatide (FORTEO)
Principal Investigator: Shapiro, Jay
Sponsored by Eli Lilly and Company, the primary aim of this study is to assess whether an increase in BMD will result from the use of rhPTH. Furthermore, PTH has been shown to have effects on bone...
Treatment of Osteoporosis in Murine Rett Syndrome Models
Principal Investigator: Shapiro, Jay
Sponsored by the International Rett Syndrome Foundation. At the Kennedy Krieger Institute, approximately 50 percent of young children and adults with Rett syndrome (RTT) have osteoporosis; 11 percent...
Nutrition and Its Impact on Bone Growth in Children with Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Principal Investigator: Shapiro, Jay
Sponsored by the Edward & Stella Van Houten Memorial Fund To provide information that may directly translate into improved care for children with OI and open the subject of nutrition as related...
Treatment of Osteoporosis in Murine Rett Syndrome Models: Comparison of Zoledronic Acid vs. Teriparatide on Osteoblast Function, Gene Expression and Bone Mass
Principal Investigator: Shapiro, Jay
This project developed from my practice of seeing patients with Rett Syndrome (RTT) and bone abnormalities at the Kennedy Krieger Institute.  The recognition of osteoporosis and the resulting...
Aging and Dementia in Adults with Down Syndrome
Principal Investigator: Silverman, Wayne
This ongoing NIH supported Program Project will be renewed for another five years, and is programmatically a seamless continuation of my current Exempt protocol (#NA_00002225; "Changes in Functioning...
Drug Discovery for AMN
Principal Investigator: Steinberg, Steven
The overall goal is to accelerate the pace at which new therapies for the most common inherited peroxisomal disorder, adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN), are discovered and tested in clinical trials through...
Pilot Treatment of the PEX1-G844D Mouse with Diosmetin
Principal Investigator: Steinberg, Steven
We created the Pex1-G844D mouse to model the clinical phenotype found in humans associated with homozygosity for the equivalent PEX1 mutation, PEX1-G843D.   The Pex1-G844D mouse model...
Neural Basis of Recovery of Inhibitory Control After Pediatric TBI
Principal Investigator: Suskauer, Stacy
Sponsored by NIH/NICHD - 5 K23 HD061611 Inhibitory control is frequently impaired following pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI), and deficits in inhibitory control impact a child's function in...
Biomarkers of mild traumatic brain injury in children: predicting outcome and understanding recovery
Principal Investigator: Suskauer, Stacey
Scientific Abstract: Current management of childhood mild TBI (mTBI, also known as concussion) is symptombased. Symptoms may last from hours to years, yet we lack objective biomarkers with which to...
Somatosensory Processing-Assessing Youth Sports-Related Concussion and Recovery
Principal Investigator: Suskauer, Stacy
Youth sports-related concussion (SRC) is a public health problem in the United States, as evidenced by the public health approach of youth concussion laws which are now in effect in more than 40...
Annual Meeting of the NCRR/NIBIB Principal Investigators
Principal Investigator: Van Zijl, Peter
We propose to continue the annual meetings of the Directors and Assistant Directors of the NCRR and NIBIB P41 Centers. The 2 1/2 day meeting is held annually in late June in Bethesda, Maryland. The...
Resource for Quantitative Functional MRI
Principal Investigator: Van Zijl, Peter
The Resource for Quantitative Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging is an interdepartmental and interdisciplinary laboratory combining facilities of the F.M. Kirby Research Center for Functional...
Novel Approaches for CEST Labeling, Detection, Quantification, and Translation
Principal Investigator: Van Zijl, Peter
The overall Program Project focuses on the design and detection of bioorganic biodegradable Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (CEST) agents, with the ultimate goal of their practical application...
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Imaging as a Biomarker for FSHD
Principal Investigator: Wagner, Kathryn
Sponsored by the American Academy of Neurology -- 2011 AAN Clinical Research Training Fellowship. Recent advances in the study of heritable neuromuscular disorders have led to multiple promising...
A Novel Xenograft Mouse Model of Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy
Principal Investigator: Wagner, Kathryn
Despite being one of the most prevalent neuromuscular disorders worldwide, there have been very few clinical trials in Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). Currently there are no clinical...
Biomarkers of Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy (FSHD)
Principal Investigator: Wagner, Kathryn
This NIH-funded study is established to identify biomarkers for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD). FSHD patients and their unaffected first degree relative will undergo open muscle biopsy...
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Double-Blind Randomized Trial to Find The Optimum Steroid Regimen (FOR-DMD)
Principal Investigator: Wagner, Kathryn
This Phase III multi-center, double-blind, parallel group, 36 - 60 month study funded by the NIH will compare three corticosteroid regimens in wide use in DMD: 1) daily prednisone (0.75 mg/kg/day); 2...
Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy Biomarkers for Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy
Principal Investigator: Wagner, Kathryn
This study, supported by the FSH Society, will utilize magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to develop non-invasive, quantitative imaging biomarkers for...
HALO-DMD-01: A Phase 1b Open Label, Single and Multiple Ascending Dose Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics (PK) of HT-100 in Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
Principal Investigator: Wagner, Kathryn
The study, sponsored by HALO Therapeutics, is designed to provide initial safety, tolerability, and PK data of halofuginone hydrobromide, HT-100, in young boys ages 6-20 years with DMD.  HT-100...
HALO-DMD-02: An Open Label Extension Study of HT-100 in Patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy who have Completed Protocol HALO-DMD-01
Principal Investigator: Wagner, Kathryn
This open-label, multiple dose extension study is designed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamic signals, and population PK of HT-100, a delayed-release, orally-delivered agent in...
Analyzing Movement of Infants at Risk for Autism
Principal Investigator: Landa, Rebecca
Research question: 1) Will infants at high-risk for ASD display significantly different motions than infants identified as low-risk for ASD? 2) Can the effect of ASD on motor development be used as...
Autism Treatment Network: Program for the Comprehensive Care and Treatment of Autism
Principal Investigator: Landa, Rebecca
The purpose of this study is to improve medical treatment of children and adolescents with autism by establishing standards of clinical care based on clinical practice and evidence from clinical...
Early Detection, Intervention and Neurobiology in Autism: Early Intervention Portion
Principal Investigator: Landa, Rebecca
The overall goal of the study is to counter the effects of increased N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)/glutamate receptors in mutation-positive Rett syndrome (RTT) subjects by use of dextromethorphan (DM...
Validation of a Video-Guided Screening Instrument for Autism Spectrum Disorders
Principal Investigator: Landa, Rebecca
The overarching goal of this proposed project is to assess the criterion validity of a new autism spectrum disorder (ASD) screening tool by comparing it to a gold standard ASD diagnostic tool known...
Development of a Social and Communication Intervention for Preschoolers with Autism
Principal Investigator: Landa, Rebecca
This is a multiphase study designed to examine the proposed intervention and how it translates for use in authentic educational settings by teachers of preschoolers with ASD. The primary aim of this...
Regulation of Glioblastoma Stem Cells by Kruppel-like Factors
Principal Investigator: Laterra, John
This research will examine mechanisms by which the family of Kruppel-like factors regulate the behavior, differentiation and tumor initiating ability of human GBM-derived stem cells. We will obtain...
Pilot Project to Assess Web-Based Family Recruitment for Autism Genetics Studies
Principal Investigator: Law, Paul
The overall goal of this project is to demonstrate that large-scale DNA collection is feasible and cost-effective. Aim 1: Demonstrate the accuracy of a rapid phenotyping paradigm in which affected...
Interactive Autism Network Research Database
Principal Investigator: Law, Paul
IAN will develop and maintain a national online research database for individuals affected by autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their family members. This will allow targeted recruitment of...
Grandparents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Survey
Principal Investigator: Law, Paul
The study will address the level of grandparent involvement in the lives of children with ASD. It will also address the impact of having a grandchild with an ASD on these grandparents in emotional,...
CAARE (Creating Advances in Autism through Research Engagement) Project
Principal Investigator: Law, Paul
The CAARE Project will develop and maintain an institutional research database for individuals affected by autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and their family members. This will allow targeted...
Determinants of Appointment Attendance at an Outpatient Pediatric Autism Clinic
Principal Investigator: Law, Paul
While most research has investigated psychometric assessment and clinical intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), little is known about the factors that influence attendance...
Masqueraders of Cerebral Palsy
Principal Investigator: Lee, Ryan
Genetic conditions that manifest movement and postural impairment at perinatal or early childhood periods are often diagnosed with cerebral palsy. Identifying masqueraders of cerebral palsy...
The Medical Evaluation of Autism in Preschoolers: Examining the Discrepancies between Parental and Clinical Impressions
Principal Investigator: Leppert, Mary
The proposed study will examine a clinic population of children being evaluated for early developmental delays in order to investigate how often parents and clinicians differ in their opinions...
Disparities in Identification of Co-Morbid Diagnoses and Prescribing Practice in School Aged Children with ADHD: Comprehensive vs. Limited Evaluations
Principal Investigator: Leppert, Mary
We will conduct a retrospective chart review study of children 5-10 years of age, who present to the Kennedy Krieger Institute Center for Development and Learning for a new evaluation and are...
Trainee teaching, knowledge and attitudes of the risks, assessments and outcomes associated with preterm birth
Principal Investigator: Leppert, Mary
Presently, 11.9% of births in the United States are preterm. Preterm children who survive the neonatal period are at significantly higher risk for neurodevelopmental disabilities. We believe that the...
Prevalence of Latex Allergy in Children with Spina Bifida
Principal Investigator: Levey, Eric
This project has two goals: First, this study will assess how effective present day “latex avoidance” procedures have been in reducing latex sensitization among children who have been newly diagnosed...
Bowel and Bladder Continence Among Children with Spina Bifida: A Prospective Study
Principal Investigator: Levey, Eric
The lack of effective bladder and/or bowel control is a significant barrier to the normal social and emotional development of children and adolescents with Spina Bifida. The study proposed in this...
Inhibition of Myostatin Reverses Fibrosis in Dystrophic Muscle
Principal Investigator: Li, Zhao
Our ultimate goal is to determine whether inhibiting myostatin will be a potential novel therapy for muscle fibrosis of dystrophic muscle. The study has two specific aims: 1) To determine whether...
Continued Impairment in Adolescents Who Have Outgrown ADHD
Principal Investigator: Lipkin, Paul
Do adolescents who report that they have "outgrown" childhood Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (diagnosed before age 10 years of age) continue to have symptoms of ADHD and impairment...
Outcome of Inclusion in Children with Pragmatic Language Impairment
Principal Investigator: Lipkin, Paul
To determine if there is a relationship between the level of academic support and reading comprehension level by evaluating the difference in reading comprehension level in third grade in children...
Developmental Surveillance and Screening Policy Implementation Project
Principal Investigator: Lipkin, Paul
The Developmental Surveillance and Screening Policy Implementation Project will select 15 pilot primary care pediatric practices to implement the AAP policy statement (anticipated publication of...
Handedness in Children with Mental Disorders
Principal Investigator: Logue, Dora
Is there a higher incidence of left handedness in children with mental health disorders? Is the severity of mental health disorders greater in children who are left handed compared to right handed...
Assessment of Neurocognitive Factors in Reading: Grades 4-8
Principal Investigator: Mahone, E. Mark
The focus of the current research is to examine the extent to and manner in which difficulties in component reading skills (both top down and bottom up), such as decoding accuracy, fluency, and...
ADHD in Preschool Girls: Longitudinal Analysis of Neuroimaging and Behavior
Principal Investigator: Mahone, Mark
The overall goal of this project is to characterize the anomalous early development (brain, cognition, and behavior) of girls who present with the behavioral features of Attention Deficit...
Neuroimaging of Motor Stereotypies in Children with Autism
Principal Investigator: Mahone, Mark
Complex motor stereotypies (i.e., apparently purposeless, rhythmical, repetitive movements) represent one of the core criteria—together with restricted interests, preoccupations, and rigidity—for...
The Effects of ADHD (Beyond Decoding Accuracy) on Reading Fluency and Comprehension
Principal Investigator: Mahone, Mark
The central goal of this project is to understand how ADHD influences processing speed (as it relates to reading speed/fluency), working memory, and reading comprehension. Specifically, we will...
ADHD in girls: neuroimaging and executive behavior
Principal Investigator: Mahone, Mark
This study is closed to participant accural and we are currently writing papers. This is a proposal to determine whether ADHD is associated with different brain anomalies/abnormalities in girls and...
Neurobehavioral Late-Effects in Pediatric Brain Tumors
Principal Investigator: Mahone, Mark
Radiation Therapy (RT) has been largely responsible for improving the survival rates of children with certain types of brain tumors, although this has come at a cost in terms of the neurodevelopment...
Frontostriatal Glutamate in ADHD: Neuropsychological and Behavioral Correlates
Principal Investigator: Mahone, Mark
Glutamate is an excitatory amino acid and the most abundant neurotransmitter in the brain. Glutamate levels are linked to a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and have been implicated...
The Incremental Validity of Neuropsychological Assessment in the Identification and Treatment of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder
Principal Investigator: Mahone, Mark
The aim of this study is to determine the extent to which neuropsychological assessment contributes to the treatment of ADHD in terms of symptom reduction and quality of life. This is designed to be...
Prevalence of Reading Difficulties: 4th-8th Grade
Principal Investigator: Mahone, E. Mark
The central goal of this project is to estimate the prevalence of various types of reading disability (RD) in the population of upper elementary and middle school students (grades 4 and 8). All data...
Reading Disability in Grades 3 - 8: Neurocognitive Factors and Behavioral Assessment
Principal Investigator: Mahone, E. Mark
This project has two purposes: to examine the validity of a response-to-intervention (RTI) approach to identifying children with reading disabilities (RD) who are beyond the initial stages of...
Genetic Influences on Sluggish Cognitive Tempo and Reading
Principal Investigator: Mahone, Mark
The overall goal of this pilot study is to examine the relationships between neuropsychological skills and genetic polymorphisms of children ages 8-15 years who display slowed processing speed in the...
Neural Correlates of Mathematical Skills and Performance
Principal Investigator: Mazzocco, Michele
In a recent publication, we demonstrated that there are large individual differences in adolescents’ numerical acuity, and that 14-year-olds’ numerical acuity is retroactively predictive of their...
SIMS -- Spinal Cord Injury Management System
Principal Investigator: McDonald, John
To define the treatment modality and co-factor variables which influence the response to Activity Based Restorative Therapies (ABRT) in individuals with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). To define the dose...
Localized Growth Factor Effects on Myelination by hESC Derived Oligodendrocytes in a Novel Microfluidic Platform
Principal Investigator: McDonald, John
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are capable of growing into any type of cell in the body. Therefore, they may someday be used to repair or replace diseased tissue and even entire organs. Our focus...
Creating a Pediatric Imaging-Genomics Data Resource
Principal Investigator: Mostofsky, Stewart
Along with investigators at 8 other sites across the U.S., we will assemble a large, cross-sectional imaging-genomics dataset. The major aim of our proposal is to create a database that is...
Anomalus Motor Physiology in ADHD
Principal Investigator: Mostofsky, Stewart
The hypothesis of this study is that the neuromotor anomalies present in children with ADHD will be associated with deficient intracortical and interhemispheric inhibition of the motor cortex. This...
Neurologic basis of inhibitory deficits in ADHD
Principal Investigator: Mostofsky, Stewart
Prevailing hypotheses implicate deficient response inhibition as one of the fundamental features driving the pathophysiology of ADHD. Results from studies of lesions in animals and humans led many...
Tourette Syndrome: Functional imaging of motor activation pathways in verbal and motor tics
Principal Investigator: Mostofsky, Stewart
Motor skill learning in autism: assessment and treatment of altered patterns of learning.
Principal Investigator: Mostofsky, Stewart
Detailed study of motor impairments in autism can provide valuable insights into the neural basis of the disorder and help to guide its treatment. Given the developmental nature of autism, during the...
Motor Skill Learning in Autism
Principal Investigator: Mostofsky, Stewart
Abnormalities on motor examination have often afforded valuable insights into developmental disorders of the brain; such abnormalities have been well documented in individuals with autism and, in...
Pathogenesis of Rett Syndrome
Principal Investigator: Naidu, SakkuBai
This is an observational study of the natural history and clinical course of Rett Syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting females, caused by mutations in the MeCP2 gene. Our...
KKI Weblink for researchers in Rett Syndrome
Principal Investigator: Naidu, SakkuBai
Creation of a Weblink for Researchers in Rett syndrome to request de-identified data from clinical evaluations collected on our patients with Rett syndrome (RTT) in The Natural History study "...
Dextromethorphan in Rett syndrome
Principal Investigator: Naidu, SakkuBai
Dr. SakkuBai Naidu of the Kennedy Krieger Institute is initiating a clinical drug trial using dextromethorphan (DM) in Rett Syndrome (RTT) at the Pediatric Clinical Research Unit (PCRU) of the Johns...
Placebo-Controlled Trial of Dextromethorphan in Rett Syndrome
Principal Investigator: Naidu, SakkuBai
The overall goal of this study is to counter the effects of increased N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)/glutamate receptors in MeCP2-mutation-positive Rett syndrome (RTT) subjects by use of a placebo-...
Genetic Modifiers of Conduction Disease Risk in Myotonic Dystrophy
Principal Investigator: Nazarian, Saman
Co-Principal Investigator: Kathryn Wagner This multi-center case controlled observational study is established to determine if genetic variants that are known to modulate cardiac conduction and...
Physical, Functional and Neurological Effects of Two Lower Extremity Exercise Protocols in Children with Cerebral Palsy
Principal Investigator: Pekar, James
The primary site for this study is the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center with Dr. Diane Damiano as the principal investigator. All study participants will be consented and enrolled at the...
Chromosomal abnormalities underlying developmental disabilities
Principal Investigator: Pevsner, Jonathan
The research question we would like to address is whether children with developmental disabilities have identifiable chromosomal abnormalities. The approach is in four parts:(1) prescreen and recruit...
Analysis of Genetic Variation in Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Principal Investigator: Pevsner, Jonathan
We propose to sequence genomic DNA from patients with neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism, to study the nature and extent of genetic variation. To do this, the PI’s laboratory will study...
Pediatric Constraint-Induced Movement Therapy for Children with Hemiparesis: Outcomes of a Clinical Model
Principal Investigator: Pidcock, Frank
Does the function of children with hemiparesis improve after treatment involving constraint of the less impaired upper extremity in conjunction with intensive therapies? We will investigate this...
Using Xbox Kinect based sensory technology to improve the functional mobility by allowing remote monitoring and modification of therapeutic activities for children with Cerebral Palsy in the home
Principal Investigator: Pidcock, Frank
This is a small fesibility study where Kennedy Krieger will partner with Richard Simpson a rehabilitation engineer to provide the therapeutic and technologic resources for developing and implementing...
Effect of the NICU Therapy Initiative on Length of Stay
Principal Investigator: Pidcock, Frank
Problem: There is a lack of evidence regarding the impact of interventions by physical therapy and occupational therapy on length of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at the Johns...
Outpatient Research Registry
Principal Investigator: Pritchard, Alison
The primary objective of this protocol is to gather information on Neuropsychology outpatients that can later be accessed for screening purposes (to determine eligibility for research studies...
Executive Function and Academic Achievement in Children with a History of Prematurity
Principal Investigator: Pritchard, Alison
The proposed study will be a retrospective review of previously collected clincal neuropsychological testing data, which will be deidentified for the purpose of this research study. The first...

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